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# Calibrating your servos in OpenTx

Mike Shellim 4 Dec 2013
updated 16 Nov 2018

# 1. Introduction

In this article, we'll take a look at servo calibration - what it is, the benefits, and a technique for doing it correctly. To understand this article, you should be already be familiar with the Key Concepts.

### 1.1 What is servo calibration?

Servo calibration is a procedure which allows you to:

• Limit control surface travel, to avoid damage to linkages and hinges.
• Achieve precise tracking - regardless of mechanical differences between left and right sides.
• Linearise movements, so differential works consistently across all surfaces.

Calibration is performed in the OUTPUTS menu. Depending on the type of control surface, it can be as simple as adusting Min, Max and Subtrim. Alternatively you may wish to use a curve to fine tune the response (unlike other operating systems, OpenTx allows you to specify a curve at channel level).

When you calibrate your servos, all mixers, inputs and trims must be bypassed. There's no built-in method for this, but you can do it via my calibration mode (CAL).

## 2. Benefits of servo calibration

Before we go through the calibration procedure, let's look in more detail at the benefits.

### 2.1 Mixer-level symmetry

Done correctly, servo calibration compensates for mismatches in linkage geometry at the level of each servo channel. After calibration, your model will appear - to the mixers - to be perfectly symmetrical. The left- and right-side mixes will therefore have identical weights.

### 2.2 Simpler design and adjustment

Since the left- and right-side mixers have identical weights, there's no need for separate adjustments for each side. By using GVARs or cascading mixers, you can have a single adjustment point affecting both sides. This makes the setup much easier.

### 2.3 Separation of roles:

Calibration promotes a clear separation of roles:

• INPUTS and MIXERS shape the 'personality' of your model ('logical design')
• OUTPUTS deals with linkage differences ('physical design')

This makes it easier to design, then configure, your setup.

### 2.4 Never lose your trim settings

If you calibrate your servos regularly, any changes due to drifting servos or bent linkages are easily identified and corrected for, any any trim offets will be restored. No longer do you need to worry if that 1mm offset is due to a genuine trim offset, or a bent linkage!

## 3. 'Calibration mode'

Hopefully by now I will have convinced you of the benefits of calibration. The next step is to modify your setup so you can disable mixers and trims on demand. You can do this using my 'Calibration Mode' modification. The text which follows will assume that Calibration mode is available in your setup.

### 4.1 Overview

Calibration is carried out in the Outputs menu.

The key fields are as follows:

• Channel label - 6 character channel identifier
• Subtrim - servo centre adjustment
• Min - end point 1
• Max - end point 2
• Dir - direction of rotation
• Curve - response curve (alternative to Min/Max/Subtrim)
• PPM centre - pulse width (microseconds) corresponding to centre command
• Subtrim mode - end points follow/ignore subtrim

### 4.2 Two methods of calibration

• Min, Max and Subtrim
The simplest way to calibrate your servo is adjust the end points and centre via Min, Max and Subtrim. This method is usually sufficient used for ailerons, elevator and rudder.

• Curves
Curves offer an alternative method of calibration, and are especially useful for matching up the movement of control surfaces with large deflections, for example flaps. A curve may have between 2 and 17 points. The first and last points define the end points. The intermediate points can be used to fine tune the response. If a curve is specified, OpenTx applies the curve first, then Min/Max/Subtrim. To avoid confusion when using curves, it's recommended to set Min/Max/Subtrim to their 'pass thru' values, that is: -100/100/0, (or -150/150/0 if using extended limits).

Two types of servo response curve:
CH1 uses min/max/subtrim
CH3 uses curve 'CV3'

## 5. Preparing for calibration

There are a couple of items to check before your first calibration:

### 5.1 Servo direction

Calibration is easier if your servos rotate in a consistent direction. The convention I use is:

• As Min/Max/Subtrim are increased, the control surface moves up or right.
• As Min/Max/Subtrim are decreased, the control surface moves down or left.

For a more detailed discussion see Calibration mode instructions.

### 5.2. Subtrim mode

The SUBTRIM MODE parameter determines the behaviour of the end points as you adjust subtrim. Always leave at the default setting ("^"), so adjusting subtrim does not affect the end points. More on this later...

## 6. Performing the calibration

OK, so now you're ready to start calibrating. Remember to activate Calibration mode before making any adjustments.

### 6.1 Calibrating ailerons, elevator, rudder, V-tail

Calibrating ailerons, elevator, rudder or V-tail is straightforward. The Min/Max/Subtrim method is usually sufficient, unless the linkages are highly non-linear. The goal is to (a) set neutrals, (b) maximise travel and (c) achieve a linear response.

Here's the procedure:

2. Activate Calibration Mode
3. Adjust SUBTRIM so that the control surface is at the correct neutral position.
4. While still in Calibration mode, adjust MAX and MIN for each servo:
1. First, adjust for max possible control surface travel
2. Next, refine so that control surface travel is equal up/down (or left/right).
3. Finally, refine so that left and right surfaces match (paired surfaces only).
5. Exit from Calibration mode

The servos are now calibrated.

(NOTE: While the Min/Max/Subtrim method is very accurate, it can be painfully slow in OpenTx 2.0. I have therefore started experimenting with 3-point curves. Curves use coarser increments so is a whole lot faster, and resolution is sufficient.)

### 6.2. Calibrating Flaps

Flaps are a special case. They are characterised by grossly asymmetric movement either side of flap neutral. If you calibrate the servos using the technique described in 6.1 (so servo centre => neutral flap), the response will have a sharp 'bend' at the neutral flap position. This means that the flaps will not track the ailerons, and diff won't work properly.

Another problem is that flap deflections are often very large, so it's important that they track each other precisely.

The solution to both these issues is: (a) ignore the flap neutral position when calibrating and (b) use a multi-point curve to ensure precise tracking.

We treat each flap channel slightly differently. For one flap, we simply set the end points and a linear response, without worrying about the flap neutral. Then we calibrate the second flap to track the first flap. For both servos, we use curves instead of Min/Max/Subtrim. To summarise:

• Flap 1 is calibrated using a 2-point curve (to set end points & linear response)
• Flap 2 is calibrated using a 5-point curve (to match Flap 1)

Later on, we'll add an offset at the mixer level, to set the flap neutral position.

Here's the procedure in detail:

1. Set Min, Max and Subtrim to defaults
2. For each flap servo, set MIN, MAX and SUBTRIM to -100, +100 and 0 respectively (or -150, +150 and 0 if using extended limits).
2. Calibrate the LEFT flap servo:
The aim is to (a) set limits, and (b) to obtain a linear response. The flap neutral is not considered in this step.
1. Go to the CURVE column, and define a 2-point curve with points
(-100, -100) and (100,100).
2. Enter Calibration mode
3. Move the stick back and forth, and adjust the points to provide maximum possible travel as limited by the flap linkage.
4. If the linkage geometry is good, the flap deflection will vary approximately linearly with the calibration input. This is what you want! If necessary, you can improve linearity by adding an extra point to the curve.
5. OK, so now you have fixed the end points, and the flap deflection varies more or less linearity with the input. Note that the flap neutral is 'floating' - we'll fix this later.
7. Exit Calibration mode
3. Calibrate the RIGHT flap servo.
The aim is to adjust the response to match the left flap.
1. Go to the CURVE column and define a 5-point straight line curve
2. Enter calibration mode
3. Move the stick to the 0/25/50/75/100 % positions; at each position, adjust the corresponding point so that the right flap exactly matches the left flap. (Depending on the linkage geometry, it may be necessary to go back and reduce one or other end point on the left flap.)
5. Exit Calibration mode

The flap servos are now calibrated, and the flaps should track perfectly. However as we noted above, the flap neutral is 'floating'. To fix this we need to apply an offset at the mixer level as follows:

1. Create a mix in each flap servo channel.
2. For each mix, set src = 'MAX'. This generates a fixed offset.
3. Adjust the weight of 'MAX' mix, until the flap is at the correct neutral.

If you've done your calibration correctly, the weight will be identical for both left and right flaps. This means you can use a GVAR to adjust both flaps from a single menu point. Which leads us neatly to the next section:

With a properly calibrated setup, you'll be able to use identical weights left- and right-side mixers. This is very useful, as it permits the use of GVARs and cascading mixers. These can greatly simplify your setup by (a) reducing the number of mixers and (b) providing a single menu point for your mixer adjustments (instead of having to adjust left- and right- sides individually).

## 8. Adjusting travel of ailerons, elevator and rudder

The travel you've set in calibration are maximal. For actual flight, you will probably wish to reduce them. Where do you make the adjustment?

The approach that I recommend is:

1. Primary flight controls (elevator, aileron and rudder): Set rates in the Inputs menu, leaving the mixer weights at 100%.

## 9. Subtrim Mode, PPM Centre

In this section, I'll go into a little more detail about Subtrim Mode.

As we've seen, the Servos menu has a column for 'Subtrim Mode'. This can be either '^' or '='. There are some significant differences:

• '^' (default) - servo end points are not affected by SUBTRIM adjustment
• '=' - servo end points are shifted by SUBTRIM (in effect, the servo end points are MIN + SUBTRIM and MAX + SUBTRIM).

If you change modes, the end points will jump, so you once you choose a mode you should stick with it.

So... which mode should you use? I would strongly recommend using the default option ('^'). Subsequently, if you to need to correct a drifting control surface (see below), then it's quicker to adjust PPM Centre which offsets the whole servo response. The adjustment to PPM Centre should also be done in Calibration mode.

## 10. Correct drifting control surfaces

Even the most accurately moulded F3X ship can suffer from bent linkages or drifting servos, perhaps as a result of wear and tear or temperature changes. These faults inevitably lead to wandering neutrals which can cause undesirable trim changes. The question is: how do you distinguish between these faults, and legitimate adjustments made with the trim levers?

The answer is: you don't need to! Recall that calibration is performed with trims disabled. Therefore, if you enter CAL mode and find that your neutrals have changed, it can't be due to the adjustments made with the trim levers; it can only be due to mechanical, temperature or electronic changes. After recalibration, your trim offsets will be restored to exactly as they were before.

By checking your calibration settings before every flying session, you can ensure that your trim offsets are always consistent, regardless of mechanical or temperature issues.

## 11. Using Autotrim (avoid!)

OpenTx allows you to re-centre your trims, by moving the offsets to SUBTRIM. This can be done in the Model Setup menu. Unfortunately, using this feature will trash your carefully calibrated SUBTRIM values.

If you intend to recalibrate your servos from time to time as is advisable then avoid using this feature.

## 12. Extended LIMITS

[To be expanded.]

## 13. Calibration the easy way

All the canned setups published on this site have Calibration mode already built-in, protected against accidental operation.